ScriptSource

Graphemes

Phoneme

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Click a symbol for information on how that phoneme is written.

Related phonemes - those that include aspiration, nasalization, or other features - are not shown in this chart but can be accessed by choosing the basic phoneme, or by using the Additional Features tab.

To see doubly-articulated phonemes, choose one of the two places of articulation (eg, for /k͡p/ choose /k/ or /p/) and refer to the list of related phonemes.

Type Place of articulation
Bilabial Labiodental
Linguolabial
Dental Alveolar Retroflex Post-alveolar
Alveo-palatal
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal
Epiglottal
Glottal
Nasal bilabial nasalm labiodental nasalɱ . linguolabial nasal alveolar nasaln retroflex nasalɳ palatal nasalɲ velar nasalŋ uvular nasalɴ
Stop -voice voiceless bilabial plosivep voiceless linguolabial plosive voiceless dental plosive voiceless alveolar plosivet voiceless retroflex plosiveʈ voiceless palatal plosivec voiceless velar plosivek voiceless uvular stopq voiceless glottal stopʔ
+voice voiced bilabial plosiveb voiced linguolabial plosive voiced dental plosive voiced alveolar plosived voiced retroflex plosiveɖ voiced palatal plosiveɟ voiced velar plosiveg
Click bilabial clickʘ dental clickǀ alveolar lateral clickǁ post-alveolar/retroflex clickǃ palatal clickǂ
Affricate -voice voiceless alveolar affricatets voiceless retroflex affricate voiceless post-alveolar affricate . voiceless alveo-palatal affricate voiceless palatal affricate
+voice voiced post-alveolar affricate voiced palatal affricateʝ
Fricative -voice voiceless bilabial fricativeɸ voiceless labiodental fricativef . voiceless linguolabial fricative voiceless dental fricativeθ voiceless alveolar fricatives voiceless retroflex fricativeʂ . voiceless retroflex post-alveolar fricative voiceless post-alveolar fricativeʃ . voiceless alveo-palatal fricativeɕ voiceless velar fricativex voiceless uvular fricativeχ voiceless pharyngeal fricativeħ . voiceless epiglottal fricativeʜ voiceless glottal fricativeh
+voice voiced bilabial fricativeβ voiced labiodental fricativev . voiced linguolabial fricative voiced dental fricativeð voiced alveolar fricativez voiced retroflex fricativeʐ . voiced retroflex post-alveolar fricative voiced post-alveolar fricativeʒ . voiced alveo-palatal fricativeʑ voiced velar fricativeɣ voiced uvular fricativeʁ voiced pharyngeal fricativeʕ . voiced epiglottal fricativeʢ̰ voiced glottal fricativeɦ
Trill alveolar trillr
Tap/Flap -voice retroflex flapɽ
+voice bilabial tapⱱ̟ labiodental tap alveolar tapɾ breathy retroflex flapɽʱ
Lateral alveolar lateral approximantl retroflex lateral approximantɭ palatal lateral approximantʎ
Approximant bilabial approximantw labiodental approximantʋ retroflex approximantɻ palatal approximantj velar approximantɰ
Null null

Click a symbol for information on how that phoneme and related phonemes are written.

Related phonemes - such as lengthened or nasalized vowels - are not shown in this chart but can be accessed by choosing the basic phoneme, or by using the Modifications tab.

Vowels Placement
Front / Near-front Central Back / Near-back
Close close front unrounded voweli . close front rounded vowely close central unrounded vowelɨ . close central rounded vowelʉ close back unrounded vowelɯ . close back rounded vowelu
Near-close near-close near-front unrounded vowelɪ . near-close near-front rounded vowelʏ near-close central unrounded vowelɪ̈ . near-close central rounded vowelʊ̈     . near-close near-back rounded vowelʊ
Close-mid close-mid front unrounded vowele . close-mid front rounded vowelø close-mid central unrounded vowelɘ . close-mid central rounded vowelɵ close-mid back unrounded vowelɤ . close-mid back rounded vowelo
Mid mid front unrounded vowel . mid front rounded vowelø̞ mid central unrounded vowelə mid back unrounded vowelɤ̞ . mid back rounded vowel
Open-mid open-mid near-front unrounded vowelɛ . open-mid near-front rounded vowelœ open-mid central unrounded vowelɜ . open-mid central rounded vowelɞ open-mid back unrounded vowelʌ . open-mid back rounded vowelɔ
Near-open near-open near-front unrounded vowelæ near-open central unrounded vowelɐ
Open open near-front unrounded vowela . open near-front rounded vowelɶ open central unrounded vowel open back unrounded vowelɑ . open back rounded vowelɒ
Null null
Diphthongs Starting place
Front / Near-front Central Back / Near-back
Toward front Falling close-mid front unrounded + close front unrounded diphthongei . open-mid near-front unrounded + close front unrounded diphthongɛi . open near-front unrounded + close front unrounded diphthongai close back rounded + close front unrounded diphthongui . close-mid back rounded + close front unrounded diphthongoi . open-mid back unrounded + close front unrounded diphthongʌi . open-mid back rounded + close front unrounded diphthongɔi
Rising close back rounded + close front unrounded rising diphthongwi
Toward near-front Falling close-mid front unrounded + near-close near-front unrounded diphthong . near-open near-front unrounded + near-close near-front unrounded diphthongæɪ . open near-front unrounded + near-close near-front unrounded diphthong mid central unrounded + near-close near-front unrounded diphthongəɪ close-mid back rounded + near-close near-front unrounded diphthong . open-mid back rounded + near-close near-front unrounded diphthongɔɪ . open back unrounded + near-close near-front unrounded diphthongɑɪ
Rising close front unrounded + close-mid front unrounded rising diphthongje . close front unrounded + open near-front unrounded rising diphthongja close back rounded + close-mid front unrounded rising diphthongwe . close back rounded + open near-front unrounded rising diphthongwa
Toward central Falling open-mid near-front unrounded + mid central unrounded diphthongɛə . near-close near-front unrounded + mid central unrounded diphthongɪə near-close near-back rounded + mid central unrounded diphthongʊə
Toward near-back Falling open near-front unrounded + near-close near-back rounded diphthong mid central unrounded + near-close near-back rounded diphthongəʊ
Toward back Falling close front unrounded + close back rounded diphthongiu . close-mid front unrounded + close back rounded diphthongeu . open-mid near-front unrounded + close back rounded diphthongɛu . open near-front unrounded + close back rounded diphthongau mid central unrounded + close back rounded diphthongəu close-mid back rounded + close back rounded diphthongou . open-mid back unrounded + close back rounded diphthongʌu . open-mid back rounded + close back rounded diphthongɔu . open back unrounded + close back rounded diphthongɑu
Rising close front unrounded + close back rounded rising diphthongju . close front unrounded + close-mid back rounded rising diphthongjo . close front unrounded + open back unrounded rising diphthong close back rounded + close-mid back rounded rising diphthongwo . close back rounded + open back unrounded rising diphthong

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Details

1

/k/  voiceless velar plosive

Graphemes used to write this phoneme

43
Script Writing System Grapheme Sequence Example Notes
Missing language written with Missing script tst-Data k keep
Missing language written with Missing script tst-Data c cat before a, o and u
Missing language written with Missing script tst-Data ck lock
Missing language written with Missing script tst-Data ch school
Missing language written with Missing script tst-Data qu mosquito loan words from Spanish
Missing language written with Missing script tst-Data qu /kw/ quick
Missing language written with Missing script tst-Data x /ks/ tax
Arab Adamawa Fulfulde written with Arabic script, Naskh variant fub-Arab ک کٜىٰڢٜىٰرٛ ‘pagan’, حَکُّندٜ ‘between’, حَکّٜ ‘sin’, مِوٛوکِ ‘I cried’
Arab Serer written with Arabic script, Naskh variant srr-Arab ک کِينْ ‘person’ when word final it uses a shadda
Arab Wolof written with Arabic script, Naskh variant wo-Arab ک کࣴرْ ‘house’
Copt Kenzi written with Coptic script (x-oldnubian) xnz-Copt-x-oldnubian /ks/ Obsolete
Copt Kenzi written with Coptic script (x-oldnubian) xnz-Copt-x-oldnubian
Deva Nepali (individual language) written with Devanagari script npi-Deva केटी ‘girl’
Latn Sudanese Arabic written with Latin script apd-Latn k kubri ‘bridge’
Latn Asturian written with Latin script ast-Latn k keplerianu ‘keplerian’ loan words
Latn Asturian written with Latin script ast-Latn qu quesu ‘cheese’ 'qu' occurs only before e and i
Latn Asturian written with Latin script ast-Latn c casu ‘case’ 'c' can be used for [k] before a, o and u
Latn Bacama written with Latin script bcy-Latn k kada ‘tree’
Latn English written with Latin script en x /ks/ tax
Latn English written with Latin script en qu /kw/ quick
Latn English written with Latin script en qu mosquito Loan words from Spanish
Latn English written with Latin script en ch school
Latn English written with Latin script en ck lock
Latn English written with Latin script en c cat Before a, o and u
Latn English written with Latin script en k keep
Latn Spanish written with Latin script es x /ks/ conexión ‘connection’
Latn Spanish written with Latin script es k kilómetro ‘kilometer’ Loan words
Latn Spanish written with Latin script es qu quien ‘who’ qu› occurs only before e and i
Latn Spanish written with Latin script es c calor ‘heat’
Latn Adamawa Fulfulde written with Latin script fub-Latn k keefeero ‘pagan’, hakkunde ‘between’, hakke ‘sin’, mi wooki ‘I cried’
Latn Hausa written with Latin script ha-Latn k kasuwa ‘market’
Latn Indonesian written with Latin script id k kurus ‘thin’, angka ‘number’
Latn Tolaki written with Latin script lbw-Latn k kare ‘leg, foot’, haki ‘pain’
Latn Ca̱hungwa̱rya̱ written with Latin script nat-Latn k kaata ‘spider’, a̱kuku ‘top of head’
Latn Pongu written with Latin script png-Latn k kiki, ka̱ta̱ku
Latn Serer written with Latin script srr-Latn k kiin ‘person’
Latn Wolof written with Latin script wo-Latn k kër ‘house’
Latn Kenzi written with Latin script xnz-Latn k
Latn Yala written with Latin script yba-Latn k uku
Tavt Tai Dam written with Tai Viet script blt-Tavt ꪁꪾ ‘gold’ high tone series (syll. init.)
Tavt Tai Dam written with Tai Viet script blt-Tavt ꪀꪲꪙ ‘to eat’, ꪬꪷꪀ ‘to break’ low tone series (syll. init.), and syllable final
Thaa Maldivian written with Thaana script dv ކ ކުކުޅު
Thaa Maldivian written with Thaana script dv އް ރުއް Occurs in syllable codas, i.e. any time the /k/ is not immediately followed by a vowel. It is pronounced as [ʔ], [ŋ] or a gemination of the following consonant, depending on context.

Copyright © 2017 SIL International and released under the  Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license (CC-BY-SA) unless noted otherwise. Language data includes information from the  Ethnologue. Script information partially from the  ISO 15924 Registration Authority. Some character data from  The Unicode Standard Character Database and locale data from the  Common Locale Data Repository. Used by permission.