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Devanagari (Nagari)Deva

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Devanagari font without shiro-rekha

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  • The image below contrasts the standard Devanagari digits 5, 8 and 9 with alternate forms. The alternates are often used in Nepal and are considered more traditional, while the standard glyphs are more modern.

    ContributorSharon Correll
  • The images below compare alternate forms of dya and hya. The standard rendering uses conjuncts; the alternate rendering uses an alternate form of the ya.

    ContributorSharon Correll
  • The image below shows several forms of the Devanagari consonant jha. The form labeled "Nepal" is used mostly in that country, although they also use the "standard" form. The standard form is preferred in India. The form labeled "Newar" is used within the Newari language communities and rarely elsewhere.

    ContributorSharon Correll
  • The image below compares the standard and alternate forms of several conjuncts that include the consonant ra. The alternate forms are considered stylistic variations, although the alternates for tra and shra are quite rare.

    ContributorSharon Correll
  • The image below contrasts the standard and archaic forms of the kssa conjunct (U+0915 + U+0937).

    ContributorSharon Correll
  • The image below compares the standard and archaic forms of the consonant nna.

    ContributorSharon Correll
  • The image below compares standard and archaic forms for several Devanagari vowels.

    ContributorSharon Correll
  • The image below shows two possible positions of the U+093C  DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA (lower dot) when it appears with a U+0947  DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN E (ekar). Very few fonts support the second example, with the dot positioned above the top bar. One exception is Microsoft's Mangal font which supports positioning above the top bar to make clear that the nukta is associated with the ekar and not the consonant.

    ContributorSharon Correll
  • The image below shows two possible positions of the U+093C  DEVANAGARI SIGN NUKTA (lower dot).when it appears with the U+0941  DEVANAGARI VOWEL SIGN U (ukar). The second example, where the dot is positioned below vowel, is very unusual.

    ContributorSharon Correll
  • The letter U+0930  DEVANAGARI LETTER RA forms distinctive conjuncts when it occurs in the same syllable as another consonant - i.e., when it is joined by a halant (virama). Note that the halant character (U+094D  DEVANAGARI SIGN VIRAMA) must be present in the encoded data but will not be visible in the conjunct.

    Reph

    When a ra precedes another consonant in the same syllable - i.e., when the characters in the data are: + + consonant - it takes the shape of a "reph". The reph looks like a curl that sits above the "clothesline" that the letters hang from. The following image shows the reph attached to several different consonants.



    Rakar

    When the ra follows a consonant in the same syllable - when the characters in the data are: consonant + + - it is written as a "rakar". A rakar can have several different forms depending on the shape of the consonant it is attached to.

    When a rakar is attached to a consonant with a vertical stem, such as or , it is written as a short diagonal stroke off the vertical stem. The following image shows these consonants (gray) and the form of their rakar conjuncts.



    Note that for a handful of letters, the basic shape of the letter also gets modified:



    (The final form above is an alternate form of the kra conjunct.)

    When rakar is attached to a consonant without a vertical stem, such as or , it is written as a shape similar to a circumflex () below the consonant. The following image shows these consonants (gray) and the form of their rakar conjuncts.



    Note the exceptions to the rules:

    • U+0926  DEVANAGARI LETTER DA: although it does not have a vertical stem, the shape of the letter requires the rakar to be written as a short diagonal stroke:
    • U+0939  DEVANAGARI LETTER HA: although it does not have a vertical stem, the diagonal stroke is attached to the lower curve:


    Eyelash forms

    Although the letter rra (U+0931 ) looks similar to the ra (), it is written differently when it precedes another consonant in a syllable. The rra takes on the "eyelash" form as shown below.



    When rra follows another consonant in a syllable, the first consonant takes on the half-form.

    The eyelash form can also be used for the letter ra itself (U+0930). This tends to occur before certain letters such as U+092F  DEVANAGARI LETTER YA or possibly U+0939  DEVANAGARI LETTER HA. This is indicated by a zero-width joiner character (U+200D) after the ra and halant - i.e., the characters are + + U+200D + consonant. Note that there is no visible difference between the sequence + and + + U+200D (the latter being much more common).

    Languages which use both and in their orthography may want to preserve the dot when half- is rendered as the eyelash form, as shown below. This is accomplished by adding the zero-width joiner after the halant.



    Exceptions

    As with other Devanagari consonants, it is possible to change the behavior of the ra by the use of the zero-width joiner (U+200D) or zero-width non-joiner (U+200C). Inserting a ZWNJ after the halant results in the explicit halant and/or half-form instead of the reph and rakar conjuncts. This is used, for example, in consonant clusters containing modern additions to the Devanagari script, such as the Sindhi letters shown below.



    Reph + rakar

    It is rare but possible to have a single syllable containing both the reph and the rakar, as shown below.



    ContributorSharon Correll

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