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HiraganaHira

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Sources for this script

Sources are references to books, web pages, articles and other materials. Scroll down to see the source on this page, or click on the title to see full details.

Title Type
Concise Compendium of the World's Languages book
Hiragana book section
Hiragana - Wikipedia web page
Japanese Hiragana - Omniglot web page
Japanese Writing book section
Maldivian Thaana, Japanese kana, and the representation of moras in writing journal article
Nonconventional script choice in Japan journal article
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  • This book contains short entries on about a hundred languages. Articles are ordered alphabetically, and each has a standard structure for ease of reference, including:

    • General Historical and Sociolinguistic Introduction
    • Writing System
    • Sound System
    • Grammatical System
    • Sample scan from a publication

    The book has an Appendix of Scripts. Each script entry is generally a chart of the characters as well as a transliteration. Most of the script entries have a small amount of explanatory text.

    AuthorGeorge L. Campbell
    PublisherRoutledge
    LocationLondon and New York,
    YearFirst published 1995, Reprinted 1999.
    ISBN/ISSN0-415-16049-9 [Second edition published 2011: 0-415-47841-3]
  • AuthorFlorian Coulmas
    BookThe Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems
    EditorFlorian Coulmas
    PublisherBlackwell Publishing
    LocationOxford, UK
    Year2006
    Pages205-209
  • Site nameWikipedia
    DateAccessed 8 July 2010
    LinkHiragana
  • AuthorSimon Ager
    Site nameOmniglot
    DateAccessed 8 July 2010
    LinkJapanese Hiragana
  • AuthorJanet S (Shibamoto) Smith
    BookThe World's Writing Systems
    EditorPeter T. Daniels, William Bright
    PublisherOxford University Press
    LocationOxford, UK
    Year1996
    Pages209-216
  • This article explores the way in which Maldivian Thaana and Japanese kana represent the mora count of syllables, and proposes an expansion of the inventory of script types to include moraic alphabets and moraic syllabaries.

    AuthorA.E. Gnanadesikan
    JournalWriting Systems Research
    Volume4
    Issue1
    Date2012
    Pages91-102
    LinkMaldivian Thaana, Japanese kana, and the representation of moras in writing
    Abstract

    Thaana, the script used to write the Maldivian language Dhivehi, represents the segments—the individual vowels and consonants—of the language but also notates the mora count of its syllables by assigning long vowels two vowel marks each and by using an absence-of-vowel mark on syllable-final consonants. The two Japanese kana—hiragana and katakana—do not represent individual segments, but they too notate mora count by giving long vowels two signs and by using signs for syllable-final consonants. In both languages, the kinds of consonants that can occur syllable finally are severely restricted. It is the presence or absence of such a consonant, rather than the identity of the consonant, that is important. Using a writing system that represents mora count thus makes sense in both languages. Yet Thaana and the two kana otherwise work on different principles, so it is not adequate to call them simply moraic writing systems. This prompts an expansion of the inventory of script types: Thaana is a moraic alphabet and the kana are moraic syllabaries.

  • The complexity of Japanese writing is discussed in this article.

    AuthorNicolas Tranter
    JournalInternational Journal of the Sociology of Language
    Volume2008
    Issue192
    ISBN/ISSN1613-3668
    Pages133-151
    Linkhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1515/IJSL.2008.040
    Abstract

    The complexity and plurality of scripts and writing devices, such as auxiliary text or “ruby,” used in nonconventional writing in Japan are outlined, and various aspects, such as the use of loan scripts, are shown to parallel aspects of spoken language contact. The complexity of Japanese writing overall is attributed to “indirect” language contact with languages encountered predominantly in written form, especially Literary Chinese in the past and English nowadays, to which the concept of “total availability” that R. A. Miller (1967) uses to characterize neologism in Japan is applied. Specific choices of script are described in terms of cultural stereotypes and Jakobson's (1960) functions of language. Advertising and manga are identified as the major sources of many nonconventional practices that then spread into youth writing and even popular fiction. In each point, there is a parallel between choices in spoken language and in script choice.

Copyright © 2017 SIL International and released under the  Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license (CC-BY-SA) unless noted otherwise. Language data includes information from the  Ethnologue. Script information partially from the  ISO 15924 Registration Authority. Some character data from  The Unicode Standard Character Database and locale data from the  Common Locale Data Repository. Used by permission.