Devanagari (Nagari)Deva

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Devanagari Transliteration
Limbu Conversion Mapping Files


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  • There are several methods of transliteration from Devanagari into Roman scripts.

    A standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO 15919 standard of 2001. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic graphemes to the Latin script. The Devanagari-specific portion is nearly identical to the academic standard for Sanskrit, IAST. More information about this standard is available from  Wikipedia. Copies of the standard can be obtained from the Central Secretariat, ISO, Case postale 56, 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland, or purchased from the  ISO website.
    The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is the academic standard for the romanization of Sanskrit. IAST is the de-facto standard used in printed publications, such as books and magazines; with the wider availability of Unicode fonts, it is also increasingly used for electronic texts. It is based on a standard established by the Congress of Orientalists at Athens in 1912. A  Devanagari to Latin transliterator is available, based on the IAST standard.
    ITRANS is a lossless transliteration scheme from Devanagari into ASCII which is widely used in electronic texts. It is an extension of the Harvard-Kyoto scheme, which was set up by Harvard University and the University of Kyoto for the purpose of transliterating Sanskrit into ASCII. ITRANS is associated with an application of the same name that enables typesetting in Indic scripts. The user inputs in Roman letters and the ITRANS pre-processor displays the Roman letters into Devanagari. The latest version of ITRANS is version 5.30 released in July, 2001.
    The National Library at Kolkata (NLK) romanization, intended for the romanization of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST.
    The Huntarian system is the one officially used by the Government of India. The original system has undergone evolution over time, and some diacritics have not been accepted by all users of the system. Not using the diacritics means that long versus short vowels, and dental versus retroflex consonants, are not differentiated in the transliteration. More information about the Hunterian system is available from  Wikipedia.

    This table compares some of the different Romanization systems currently in use. Please note that the table does not currently include additional Devanagari characters used for Kashmiri, Marathi, or Sanskrit.


    DevanagariISO 15919IAST*ITRANS*Harvard-Kyoto*NLKHuntarian
      ka K k k k ka ka
      kha Kh kh kh kh kha kha
      ga G g g g ga ga
      gha Gh gh gh gh gha gha
      ṅa Ṅ ṅ ~N/N^ G ṅa nga
      ca C c ch c ca cha
      cha Ch ch Ch ch cha chha
      ja J j j j ja ja
      jha Jh jh jh jh jh jha
      ña Ñ ñ ~n / JN J ña na
      ṭa Ṭ ṭ T T ṭa ta
      ṭha Ṭh ṭh Th Th ṭha tha
      ḍa Ḍ ḍ D D ḍa da
      ḍha Ḍh ḍh Dh Dh ḍha dha
      ṇa Ṇ ṇ N N ṇa na
      ta T t t t ta ta
      tha Th th th th tha tha
      da D d d d da da
      dha Dh dh dh dh dha dha
      na N n n n na na
      pa P p p p pa pa
      pha Ph ph ph ph pha pha
      ba B b b b ba ba
      bha Bh bh bh bh bha bha
      ma M m m m ma ma
      ya Y y y y ya ya
      ra R r r r ra ra
      la L l L l la la
      va V v v/w v va wa/va
      śa Ś ś sh z śa sha/sa**
      ṣa Ṣ ṣ Sh S ṣa sha
      sa S s s s sa sa
      ha H h h h ha ha
      qa q qa
      k̲h̲a Kh kha
      ġa G gha
      za z / J
      ṛa .D
      ṛha .Dh  
      fa f


    DevanagariISO 15919IAST*ITRANS*Harvard-KyotoNLKHuntarian
      a A a a a a a
      / ā Ā ā A/aa A ā a/ā
      / ि i I i i i i i
      / ī Ī ī I/ii I ī i/ī
      / u U u u u u u
      / ū Ū ū U / uu U ū ū
      / ē E e e e ē e
      / ai Ai ai ai ai ai ai
      / ō O o o o ō o
      / au Au au au au au au
      / Rri/Ri R ri/ṛĭ
      / lR LLi / Li
      / r̥̄ RR RRI / RI ri/ṟĭ
      / LLI / LI lRR


    DevanagariISO 15919IAST*ITRANS*Harvard-KyotoNLKHuntarian
      kṣa x/ksh ksha/kṣha
      tra   tra tra
      jña GY/j~n gya / jña (Sanskrit)
      śra shr shra

    Non-Alphabetic Symbols:

    DevanagariISO 15919IAST*ITRANS*Harvard-KyotoNLKHuntarian
      Ṃ ṃ .n/M/.m M h/ḥ
      Ḥ ḥ H H
      mँ .N m / n / ṃ / ṅ
      halant .h
      om symbol OM / AUM

    * IAST, ITRANS and Harvard-Kyoto do not represent the implicit ‘a’ by default. This must be included explicitly if required.
    ** Both sha and sa are used by Nepali speakers.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • If you have existing data using the Namdhinggo SIL L font and wish to convert your data to Unicode you may use the TECkit mapping file (called "Limbu") that is available from this webpage. Since Namdhinggo SIL L used an encoding that is common among other fonts for the script it is possible that this mapping file will work for texts using those custom-encoded Limbu fonts.

    Also provided is the "DevUni-LimUni12" mapping file. It gives the ability to convert between Devanagari script and Limbu script.

    LinkLimbu Conversion Mapping Files

     TECkit and/or  SIL Converters

    LicenseMIT/X11 License Allows use, study, modification, redistribution
    ContributorLorna Priest



Copyright © 2017 SIL International and released under the  Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license (CC-BY-SA) unless noted otherwise. Language data includes information from the  Ethnologue. Script information partially from the  ISO 15924 Registration Authority. Some character data from  The Unicode Standard Character Database and locale data from the  Common Locale Data Repository. Used by permission.