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Death of Nastaliq?

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182
Writing systems that use this script (182)
Name Code Is used to write language
Adamawa Fulfulde written with Arabic script, Naskh variant fub-Arab Fulfulde, Adamawa [fub]
Adyghe written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ady-Arab Adyghe [ady]
Algerian Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant arq-Arab Arabic, Algerian [arq]
Andaandi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant dgl-Arab Andaandi [dgl]
Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ar Arabic [ara]
Avestan written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ae-Arab Avestan [ave]
Azerbaijani written with Arabic script, Naskh variant az-Arab Azerbaijani [aze]
Baharna Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant abv-Arab Arabic, Baharna [abv]
Bakhtiari written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bqi-Arab Bakhtiari [bqi]
Balangingi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant sse-Arab Balangingi [sse]
Balanta-Ganja written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bjt-Arab Balanta-Ganja [bjt]
Balti written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bft-Arab Balti [bft]
Banjar written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bjn-Arab Banjar [bjn]
Bedawiyet written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bej-Arab Bedawiyet [bej]
Bhadrawahi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bhd-Arab Bhadrawahi [bhd]
Brahui written with Arabic script, Naskh variant brh-Arab Brahui [brh]
Brunei written with Arabic script, Naskh variant kxd-Arab Brunei [kxd]
Burushaski written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bsk-Arab Burushaski [bsk]
Central Atlas Tamazight written with Arabic script, Naskh variant tzm-Arab Tamazight, Central Atlas [tzm]
Central Kanuri written with Arabic script, Naskh variant knc-Arab Kanuri, Central [knc]
Central Kurdish written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ckb-Arab Kurdish, Central [ckb]
Central Pashto written with Arabic script, Naskh variant pst-Arab Pashto, Central [pst]
Chadian Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant shu-Arab Arabic, Chadian [shu]
Chittagonian written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ctg-Arab Chittagonian [ctg]
Coptic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant cop-Arab Coptic [cop]
Cypriot Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant acy-Arab Arabic, Cypriot [acy]
Dameli written with Arabic script, Naskh variant dml-Arab Dameli [dml]
Dari written with Arabic script, Naskh variant prs-Arab Dari [prs]
Deccan written with Arabic script, Naskh variant dcc-Arab Deccan [dcc]
Dhatki written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mki-Arab Dhatki [mki]
Dogri (macrolanguage) written with Arabic script, Naskh variant doi-Arab Dogri (macrolanguage) [doi]
Dongxiang written with Arabic script, Naskh variant sce-Arab Dongxiang [sce]
Dyula written with Arabic script, Naskh variant dyu-Arab Dyula [dyu]
Eastern Balochi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bgp-Arab Balochi, Eastern [bgp]
Eastern Cham written with Arabic script, Naskh variant cjm-Arab Cham, Eastern [cjm]
Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant avl-Arab Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi [avl]
Eastern Maninkakan written with Arabic script, Naskh variant emk-Arab Maninkakan, Eastern [emk]
Egyptian Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant arz-Arab Arabic, Egyptian [arz]
Fulah written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ff-Arab Fulah [ful]
Gilaki written with Arabic script, Naskh variant glk-Arab Gilaki [glk]
Goaria written with Arabic script, Naskh variant gig-Arab Goaria [gig]
Gujari written with Arabic script, Naskh variant gju-Arab Gujari [gju]
Gulf Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant afb-Arab Arabic, Gulf [afb]
Gurani written with Arabic script, Naskh variant hac-Arab Gurani [hac]
Gurgula written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ggg-Arab Gurgula [ggg]
Hassaniyya written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mey-Arab Hassaniyya [mey]
Hausa written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ha-Arab Hausa [hau]
Hazaragi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant haz-Arab Hazaragi [haz]
Hijazi Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant acw-Arab Arabic, Hijazi [acw]
Ida'an written with Arabic script, Naskh variant dbj-Arab Ida'an [dbj]
Indonesian written with Arabic script, Naskh variant id-Arab Indonesian [ind]
Indus Kohistani written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mvy-Arab Kohistani, Indus [mvy]
Ingush written with Arabic script, Naskh variant inh-Arab Ingush [inh]
Iranian Persian written with Arabic script, Naskh variant pes-Arab Persian, Iranian [pes]
Jahanka written with Arabic script, Naskh variant jad-Arab Jahanka [jad]
Jenaama Bozo written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bze-Arab Bozo, Jenaama [bze]
Jola-Fonyi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant dyo-Arab Jola-Fonyi [dyo]
Judeo-Tunisian Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ajt-Arab Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian [ajt]
Kachi Koli written with Arabic script, Naskh variant gjk-Arab Koli, Kachi [gjk]
Kalami written with Arabic script, Naskh variant gwc-Arab Kalami [gwc]
Kalasha written with Arabic script, Naskh variant kls-Arab Kalasha [kls]
Kashmiri written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ks-Arab Kashmiri [kas]
Kati written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bsh-Arab Kati [bsh]
Kazakh written with Arabic script, Naskh variant kk-Arab Kazakh [kaz]
Kenzi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant xnz-Arab Kenzi [xnz]
Khowar written with Arabic script, Naskh variant khw-Arab Khowar [khw]
Koti written with Arabic script, Naskh variant eko-Arab Koti [eko]
Kumyk written with Arabic script, Naskh variant kum-Arab Kumyk [kum]
Kurdish written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ku-Arab Kurdish [kur]
Kyrgyz written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ky-Arab Kyrgyz [kir]
Lahnda written with Arabic script, Naskh variant lah-Arab Lahnda [lah]
Laki written with Arabic script, Naskh variant lki-Arab Laki [lki]
Libyan Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ayl-Arab Arabic, Libyan [ayl]
Maasina Fulfulde written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ffm-Arab Fulfulde, Maasina [ffm]
Maba (Chad) written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mde-Arab Maba (Chad) [mde]
Malay (individual language) written with Arabic script, Naskh variant zlm-Arab Malay (individual language) [zlm]
Malay (macrolanguage) written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ms-Arab Malay (macrolanguage) [msa]
Malayalam written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ml-Arab Malayalam [mal]
Maltese written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mt-Arab Maltese [mlt]
Mandinka written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mnk-Arab Mandinka [mnk]
Manga Kanuri written with Arabic script, Naskh variant kby-Arab Kanuri, Manga [kby]
Maore Comorian written with Arabic script, Naskh variant swb-Arab Comorian, Maore [swb]
Marwari (Pakistan) written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mve-Arab Marwari (Pakistan) [mve]
Mazanderani written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mzn-Arab Mazanderani [mzn]
Mesopotamian Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant acm-Arab Arabic, Mesopotamian [acm]
Mogofin written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mfg-Arab Mogofin [mfg]
Moroccan Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ary-Arab Arabic, Moroccan [ary]
Munji written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mnj-Arab Munji [mnj]
Mwani written with Arabic script, Naskh variant wmw-Arab Mwani [wmw]
Nafusi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant jbn-Arab Nafusi [jbn]
Najdi Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ars-Arab Arabic, Najdi [ars]
Ndzwani Comorian written with Arabic script, Naskh variant wni-Arab Comorian, Ndzwani [wni]
Ngazidja Comorian written with Arabic script, Naskh variant zdj-Arab Comorian, Ngazidja [zdj]
Nigerian Fulfulde written with Arabic script, Naskh variant fuv-Arab Fulfulde, Nigerian [fuv]
Nobiin written with Arabic script, Naskh variant fia-Arab Nobiin [fia]
North Azerbaijani written with Arabic script, Naskh variant azj-Arab Azerbaijani, North [azj]
North Levantine Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant apc-Arab Arabic, North Levantine [apc]
North Mesopotamian Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ayp-Arab Arabic, North Mesopotamian [ayp]
Northern Hindko written with Arabic script, Naskh variant hno-Arab Hindko, Northern [hno]
Northern Kurdish written with Arabic script, Naskh variant kmr-Arab Kurdish, Northern [kmr]
Northern Luri written with Arabic script, Naskh variant lrc-Arab Luri, Northern [lrc]
Northern Pashto written with Arabic script, Naskh variant pbu-Arab Pashto, Northern [pbu]
Northern Uzbek written with Arabic script, Naskh variant uzn-Arab Uzbek, Northern [uzn]
Od written with Arabic script, Naskh variant odk-Arab Od [odk]
Omani Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant acx-Arab Arabic, Omani [acx]
Ormuri written with Arabic script, Naskh variant oru-Arab Ormuri [oru]
Ottoman Turkish (1500-1928) written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ota-Arab Turkish, Ottoman (1500-1928) [ota]
Pahari-Potwari written with Arabic script, Naskh variant phr-Arab Pahari-Potwari [phr]
Palula written with Arabic script, Naskh variant phl-Arab Palula [phl]
Panjabi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant pa-Arab Panjabi [pan]
Parkari Koli written with Arabic script, Naskh variant kvx-Arab Koli, Parkari [kvx]
Parsi-Dari written with Arabic script, Naskh variant prd-Arab Parsi-Dari [prd]
Pattani Malay written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mfa-Arab Malay, Pattani [mfa]
Persian written with Arabic script, Naskh variant fa Persian [fas]
Pulaar written with Arabic script, Naskh variant fuc-Arab Pulaar [fuc]
Pular written with Arabic script, Naskh variant fuf-Arab Pular [fuf]
Purik written with Arabic script, Naskh variant prx-Arab Purik [prx]
Pushto written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ps Pushto [pus]
Qashqa'i written with Arabic script, Naskh variant qxq-Arab Qashqa'i [qxq]
Rohingya written with Arabic script, Naskh variant rhg-Arab Rohingya [rhg]
Saafi-Saafi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant sav-Arab Saafi-Saafi [sav]
Saidi Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant aec-Arab Arabic, Saidi [aec]
Samaritan written with Arabic script, Naskh variant smp-Arab Samaritan [smp]
Sanaani Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ayn-Arab Arabic, Sanaani [ayn]
Saraiki written with Arabic script, Naskh variant skr-Arab Saraiki [skr]
Serer written with Arabic script, Naskh variant srr-Arab Serer [srr]
Shina written with Arabic script, Naskh variant scl-Arab Shina [scl]
Shughni written with Arabic script, Naskh variant sgh-Arab Shughni [sgh]
Sindhi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant sd-Arab Sindhi [snd]
Somali written with Arabic script, Naskh variant so-Arab Somali [som]
Soninke written with Arabic script, Naskh variant snk-Arab Soninke [snk]
Soqotri written with Arabic script, Naskh variant sqt-Arab Soqotri [sqt]
South Azerbaijani written with Arabic script, Naskh variant azb-Arab Azerbaijani, South [azb]
South Levantine Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ajp-Arab Arabic, South Levantine [ajp]
Southeast Pashai written with Arabic script, Naskh variant psi-Arab Pashai, Southeast [psi]
Southern Balochi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bcc-Arab Balochi, Southern [bcc]
Southern Hindko written with Arabic script, Naskh variant hnd-Arab Hindko, Southern [hnd]
Southern Kurdish written with Arabic script, Naskh variant sdh-Arab Kurdish, Southern [sdh]
Southern Pashto written with Arabic script, Naskh variant pbt-Arab Pashto, Southern [pbt]
Southern Uzbek written with Arabic script, Naskh variant uzs-Arab Uzbek, Southern [uzs]
Standard Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant arb-Arab Arabic, Standard [arb]
Standard Malay written with Arabic script, Naskh variant zsm-Arab Malay, Standard [zsm]
Sudanese Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant apd-Arab Arabic, Sudanese [apd]
Sundanese written with Arabic script, Naskh variant su-Arab Sundanese [sun]
Susu written with Arabic script, Naskh variant sus-Arab Susu [sus]
Swahili (macrolanguage) written with Arabic script, Naskh variant sw-Arab Swahili (macrolanguage) [swa]
Ta'izzi-Adeni Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant acq-Arab Arabic, Ta'izzi-Adeni [acq]
Tachawit written with Arabic script, Naskh variant shy-Arab Tachawit [shy]
Tachelhit written with Arabic script, Naskh variant shi-Arab Tachelhit [shi]
Tadaksahak written with Arabic script, Naskh variant dsq-Arab Tadaksahak [dsq]
Tagdal written with Arabic script, Naskh variant tda-Arab Tagdal [tda]
Tahaggart Tamahaq written with Arabic script, Naskh variant thv-Arab Tamahaq, Tahaggart [thv]
Tajik written with Arabic script, Naskh variant tg-Arab Tajik [tgk]
Tajiki Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant abh-Arab Arabic, Tajiki [abh]
Talysh written with Arabic script, Naskh variant tly-Arab Talysh [tly]
Tarifit written with Arabic script, Naskh variant rif-Arab Tarifit [rif]
Tausug written with Arabic script, Naskh variant tsg-Arab Tausug [tsg]
Tawallammat Tamajaq written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ttq-Arab Tamajaq, Tawallammat [ttq]
Tem written with Arabic script, Naskh variant kdh-Arab Tem [kdh]
Tiéyaxo Bozo written with Arabic script, Naskh variant boz-Arab Bozo, Tiéyaxo [boz]
Torwali written with Arabic script, Naskh variant trw-Arab Torwali [trw]
Tumzabt written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mzb-Arab Tumzabt [mzb]
Tunisian Arabic written with Arabic script, Naskh variant aeb-Arab Arabic, Tunisian [aeb]
Turkish written with Arabic script, Naskh variant tr-Arab Turkish [tur]
Turkmen written with Arabic script, Naskh variant tk-Arab Turkmen [tuk]
Urdu written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ur-Arab Urdu [urd]
Uyghur written with Arabic script, Naskh variant ug-Arab Uyghur [uig]
Uzbek written with Arabic script, Naskh variant uz-Arab Uzbek [uzb]
Wadiyara Koli written with Arabic script, Naskh variant kxp-Arab Koli, Wadiyara [kxp]
Wakhi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant wbl-Arab Wakhi [wbl]
Western Balochi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant bgn-Arab Balochi, Western [bgn]
Western Cham written with Arabic script, Naskh variant cja-Arab Cham, Western [cja]
Western Maninkakan written with Arabic script, Naskh variant mlq-Arab Maninkakan, Western [mlq]
Western Niger Fulfulde written with Arabic script, Naskh variant fuh-Arab Fulfulde, Western Niger [fuh]
Western Panjabi written with Arabic script, Naskh variant pnb-Arab Panjabi, Western [pnb]
Wolio written with Arabic script, Naskh variant wlo-Arab Wolio [wlo]
Wolof written with Arabic script, Naskh variant wo-Arab Wolof [wol]
Yakan written with Arabic script, Naskh variant yka-Arab Yakan [yka]
Yalunka written with Arabic script, Naskh variant yal-Arab Yalunka [yal]
Yoruba written with Arabic script, Naskh variant yo-Arab Yoruba [yor]
Zarma written with Arabic script, Naskh variant dje-Arab Zarma [dje]
Zaza written with Arabic script, Naskh variant zza-Arab Zaza [zza]

14
  • The name Ajami comes from the Arabic word for 'foreigner'. It is the name given collectively to modified versions of the Arabic script used to write various West African (non-Arabic) languages. With the spread of Islam and Islamic culture to the African continent, speakers of some African languages, such as Kiswahili, Hausa, Wolof, Mandinka and Fulfulde, wanted to write their languages in the script.

    Fulfulde Ajami. Copied with permission from Souag, L. (2011). 'Ajami in West Africa'. Afrikanistik online, Vol. 2010. Original source: Sow, Alfâ Ibrâhîm (ed.) (1971) ' Le Filon du bonheur éternel, par Tierno Mouhammadou-Samba Mombéyâ'

    The oldest known Ajami manuscripts date from the 14th century and were found in Mali. The script became widespread across the Sudanic belt, and was adapted for secular uses. Traders would record business transactions in Ajami, while other people would write secular poems or compile medical encyclopedias of indigenous treatments. It was used to write about a dozen languages. In some parts of Africa in the 20th century, Ajami was the medium of the anticolonialist resistance movement, as, in order to read it, knowledge of both the Arabic script and the language being written is required, and the colonialists did not typically have access to this knowledge. In Nigeria, Hausa is the only native language represented on currency; Nigerian bank notes have their values written in Hausa, using Ajami.

    Efforts on the part of the Islamic Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (ISESCO) to standardize Ajami have not been successful. Usage varies significantly between and even within languages, from one author to another. Two of the most widely documented languages which use Ajami are Wolof and Hausa.

    The Wolof language has officially been written in the Latin script since the 1970s, although some scholars claim that the population literate in Ajami (called Wolofal for this language) is greater than that literate in Latin, due to higher attendance in Quranic than secular schools. Nine of the twenty-eight Arabic letters are not used for writing Wolof, except in Arabic loan words. There are fourteen sounds in Wolof which are not found in Arabic, mostly prenasals. Generally, these are written using the Arabic letter which is deemed to represent the closest sound to the target (this is subject to dialectal variation), modified with the three dot symbol above or, less often, below. Some letters are used to represent more than one sound; the rules governing this are inconsistent. Arabic writing typically indicates short consonants and long vowels, of which there are three. These vowels are represented using the letters ya [i], waw [u] and aleph [a]. The Wolof language uses seven vowels. These are written using the same three letters; ya to write front vowels [i, e, ɛ], waw to write back vowels [ɔ, o] and aleph to write mid-vowels [a, ə]. Diphthongs are written using a combination of a vowel and a semi-vowel having a sukun (small circular diacritic), in both Arabic and Ajami writing. Long consonants and short vowels are optionally indicated in both scripts using diacritics.

    Islamic catechism in the Wolof language. From Cheikhouna Lo N’gabou, 2003.

    The Hausa language shares a syllabic inventory with Arabic; CV, CVV and CVC. The sound systems of both languages also overlap significantly, which facilitates the use of the Arabic script for writing the language. There is no standard for writing Hausa in Ajami, so there is a great deal of variation. However, some orthographic conventions are generally adhered to. Hausa uses five vowels, [a, e i, o u], whereas Arabic only uses three, [a, i, u]. Each letter has a long and a short counterpart in both languages. The letters which are used in both languages are written in Hausa Ajami according to the rules of the Arabic script. To represent the extra two vowels, Hausa Ajami uses the Arabic waw for both [o] and [u]. The reader must deduce which representation is intended from the context. To write a short [e] vowel, Hausa Ajami uses a dot diacritic below the consonant, and to write a long [e], it uses a dot diacritic below and a vertical stroke above. Hausa is a tone language, but this is not reflected in Ajami writing. There are five sounds in Hausa which are written with modifications of Arabic letters: [ɓ], which modifies the Arabic [b] sign; [c], which modifies the Arabic [t] sign; [ɗ], which modifies the Arabic [tc] sign; [g], which modifies the Arabic [ʔ] sign; and [tʃ], which modifies the Arabic [z] sign.

    Source

    Text based on 'Ajami Scripts in the Senegalese Speech Community' by Fallou Ngom www.lancs.ac.uk/jais/volume/index.htm

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • The term Aljamiado denotes a modified Arabic (and, less frequently, Hebrew) script used for writing the Hispano-Romance languages spoken by communities of covert Muslims in Spain and Portugal known as Moriscos, from the 9th until the 16th centuries. Muslim speakers of Castilian and Aragonese in particular used the script. The term is also sometimes used as a general term for any spoken Hispano-Romance dialect of Mediterranean Muslims. Aljamiado writing first became widely used in the 15th century and continued until the 16th century, when King Philip II of Spain outlawed the used of Arabic, spoken or written, and gave the Moriscos three years to learn the language of the Christian Spanish. Aljamiado texts only came to the attention of the outside world in the early nineteenth century.

    There are currently about 200 Aljamiado manuscripts in existence, mostly housed in museums and libraries around Madrid. They contain studies of death and judgement, travel literature, love stories, legends, moral teachings, poetry, books of proverbs and dreams, anti-christian and anti-jewish texts, legal documents, and a great number of Biblical and Quranic stories.

    Aljamiado writing was never standardized, so different scribes represented the same phonemes differently, but some conventions were generally maintained by the majority of writers.

    Some Arabic letters represent sounds which are not found in Aljamiado speech, for example gutterals. These letters were not used in Aljamiado texts, except for writing Arabic words. (Most extant texts include at least one Arabic passage or quotation.) Conversely, some Hispanic sounds could not be represented using Arabic letters, for example [ɲ] (ñ), [p] and the trilled [r]. These were represented by writing the letter which most closely approximated the desired sound, twice.

    Arabic writing employs three vowel letters, representing the long vowels a (aleph), i (ya) and u (waw). The short counterparts of these are optionally written using diacritics. However, Aljamiado has five vowels; a, i, e, o, u. To represent the extra two vowels, Aljamiado uses the Arabic waw for both [o] and [u]. The reader must deduce which representation is intended from the context. [e] is written using the aleph symbol plus a fatha diacritic above the following letter.

    Arabic syllables only ever consist of a consonant plus a (long or short) vowel, or a consonant plus a short vowel plus a closing consonant. The Arabic script is therefore designed to accommodate these syllable structures. However, spoken Aljamiado has a greater variety of permissible syllable structures to represent. Aljamiado syllables beginning with a consonant are written with a silent letter 'h' at the start. Syllables containing a consonant cluster must either be resyllabified to fit an Arabic syllable structure - so the word 'agradable' (nice) is written with the Arabic symbols for 'hag'+'ra'+'dab'+'le' - or an epenthetic vowel letter must be inserted between consonant letters - so the word 'clave' (key) is written with the symbols for 'ca'+'la'+'ve'. Syllables containing two vowels next to each other are written with an epenthetic consonant inserted between the two vowels. The consonant must be similar in quality to the first vowel in the pair. For example, 'ciencia' (science) is written with the Arabic symbols for ci+yen+ci+ya.

    Aljamiado writing is unicameral like Arabic, that is, there is no upper and lower case. No full stops, commas or accents are used.

    Source

    This 1888 Aljamiado primer found at  http://www.arabic-islamic.org/aljamiado/textos_aljamiados/a1p_I.html, and correspondence with Vincent Barletta

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • A survey of the use of Arabic script in modern Nigeria

    Source

    ‘Arabic script in modern Nigeria’, in Roger Blench and Stuart McGill (eds): Advances in Minority Language Research in Nigeria Vol. 1 (Kay Williamson Educational Foundation African languages monographs 5; Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag; 2012) 105-21.

    Copyright(c) 2012 Rüdiger Köppe Verlag
    LicenseCreative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Allows modification and redistribution
    ContributorAndy Warren-Rothlin
  • Coptic Calendar

    Months

    Tut: ‫توت‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫توت‬‮, ‮‫١‬‮)‮

    Babah: ‫بابه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫بابه‬‮, ‮‫٢‬‮)‮

    Hatur: ‫هاتور‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫هاتور‬‮, ‮‫٣‬‮)‮

    Kiyahk: ‫كيهك‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫كيهك‬‮, ‮‫٤‬‮)‮

    Tubah: ‫طوبة‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫طوبة‬‮, ‮‫٥‬‮)‮

    Amshir: ‫أمشير‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫أمشير‬‮, ‮‫٦‬‮)‮

    Baramhat: ‫برمهات‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫برمهات‬‮, ‮‫٧‬‮)‮

    Baramundah: ‫برمودة‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫برمودة‬‮, ‮‫٨‬‮)‮

    Bashans: ‫بشنس‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫بشنس‬‮, ‮‫٩‬‮)‮

    Ba'unah: ‫بؤونة‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫بؤونة‬‮, ‮‫١٠‬‮)‮

    Abib: ‫أبيب‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫أبيب‬‮, ‮‫١١‬‮)‮

    Misra: ‫مسرى‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مسرى‬‮, ‮‫١٢‬‮)‮

    Nasi: ‫نسيئ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نسيئ‬‮, ‮‫١٣‬‮)‮

    Ethiopic Calendar

    Months

    Mäskäräm: ‫مسكريم‬

    Ṭəqəmt: ‫تكمت‬

    Ḫədar: ‫هدار‬

    Taḫśaś: ‫تهساس‬

    Ṭərr: ‫تر‬

    Yäkatit: ‫يكتت‬

    Mägabit: ‫مجابيت‬

    Miyazya: ‫ميازيا‬

    Gənbot: ‫جنبت‬

    Säne: ‫سين‬

    Ḥamle: ‫هامل‬

    Nähase: ‫نهاس‬

    Ṗagumen: ‫باجمن‬

    Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫يناير‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫يناير‬‮, ‮‫ي‬‮)‮

    February: ‫فبراير‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫فبراير‬‮, ‮‫ف‬‮)‮

    March: ‫مارس‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مارس‬‮, ‮‫م‬‮)‮

    April: ‫أبريل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫أبريل‬‮, ‮‫أ‬‮)‮

    May: ‫مايو‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مايو‬‮, ‮‫و‬‮)‮

    June: ‫يونيو‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫يونيو‬‮, ‮‫ن‬‮)‮

    July: ‫يوليو‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫يوليو‬‮, ‮‫ل‬‮)‮

    August: ‫أغسطس‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫أغسطس‬‮, ‮‫غ‬‮)‮

    September: ‫سبتمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سبتمبر‬‮, ‮‫س‬‮)‮

    October: ‫أكتوبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫أكتوبر‬‮, ‮‫ك‬‮)‮

    November: ‫نوفمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نوفمبر‬‮, ‮‫ب‬‮)‮

    December: ‫ديسمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ديسمبر‬‮, ‮‫د‬‮)‮

    Days

    Sunday: ‫الأحد‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫الأحد‬‮, ‮‫ح‬‮)‮

    Monday: ‫الاثنين‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫الاثنين‬‮, ‮‫ن‬‮)‮

    Tuesday: ‫الثلاثاء‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫الثلاثاء‬‮, ‮‫ث‬‮)‮

    Wednesday: ‫الأربعاء‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫الأربعاء‬‮, ‮‫ر‬‮)‮

    Thursday: ‫الخميس‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫الخميس‬‮, ‮‫خ‬‮)‮

    Friday: ‫الجمعة‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫الجمعة‬‮, ‮‫ج‬‮)‮

    Saturday: ‫السبت‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫السبت‬‮, ‮‫س‬‮)‮

    Hebrew Calendar

    Months

    Tishri: ‫تشري‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫تشري‬‮)‮

    Marcheshvan: ‫مرحشوان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مرحشوان‬‮)‮

    Kislew: ‫كيسلو‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫كيسلو‬‮)‮

    Tebeth: ‫طيفت‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫طيفت‬‮)‮

    Shevat: ‫شباط‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شباط‬‮)‮

    Adar I: ‫آذار الأول‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آذار الأول‬‮)‮

    Adar II: ‫آذار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آذار‬‮)‮

    Nisan: ‫نيسان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نيسان‬‮)‮

    Iyyar: ‫أيار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫أيار‬‮)‮

    Siwan: ‫سيفان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سيفان‬‮)‮

    Tammuz: ‫تموز‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫تموز‬‮)‮

    Av: ‫آب‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آب‬‮)‮

    Elul: ‫أيلول‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫أيلول‬‮)‮

    Islamic Calendar

    Months

    al-Muharram: ‫محرم‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫محرم‬‮, ‮‫١‬‮)‮

    Safar: ‫صفر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫صفر‬‮, ‮‫٢‬‮)‮

    Rabi al-Awwal: ‫ربيع الأول‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ربيع الأول‬‮, ‮‫٣‬‮)‮

    Rabi al-Thani: ‫ربيع الآخر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ربيع الآخر‬‮, ‮‫٤‬‮)‮

    Jumada al-Ula: ‫جمادى الأولى‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جمادى الأولى‬‮, ‮‫٥‬‮)‮

    Jumada al-Thaniya: ‫جمادى الآخرة‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جمادى الآخرة‬‮, ‮‫٦‬‮)‮

    Rajab: ‫رجب‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫رجب‬‮, ‮‫٧‬‮)‮

    Shaʿban: ‫شعبان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شعبان‬‮, ‮‫٨‬‮)‮

    Ramadan: ‫رمضان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫رمضان‬‮, ‮‫٩‬‮)‮

    Shawwal: ‫شوال‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شوال‬‮, ‮‫١٠‬‮)‮

    Dhu al-Qaʿda: ‫ذو القعدة‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ذو القعدة‬‮, ‮‫١١‬‮)‮

    Dhu al-Hijja: ‫ذو الحجة‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ذو الحجة‬‮, ‮‫١٢‬‮)‮

    Persian Calendar

    Months

    Farvardīn: ‫فرفردن‬

    Ordībehešt: ‫أذربيهشت‬

    Xordād: ‫خرداد‬

    Tīr: ‫تار‬

    Mordād: ‫مرداد‬

    Šahrīvar: ‫شهرفار‬

    Mehr: ‫مهر‬

    Ābān: ‫آيان‬

    Āzar: ‫آذر‬

    Dey: ‫دي‬

    Bahman: ‫بهمن‬

    Esfand: ‫اسفندار‬

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫کانوونی دووەم‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫کانوونی دووەم‬‮, ‮‫ک‬‮)‮

    February: ‫شوبات‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شوبات‬‮, ‮‫ش‬‮)‮

    March: ‫ئازار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ئازار‬‮, ‮‫ئ‬‮)‮

    April: ‫نیسان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نیسان‬‮, ‮‫ن‬‮)‮

    May: ‫ئایار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ئایار‬‮, ‮‫ئ‬‮)‮

    June: ‫حوزەیران‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫حوزەیران‬‮, ‮‫ح‬‮)‮

    July: ‫تەمووز‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫تەمووز‬‮, ‮‫ت‬‮)‮

    August: ‫ئاب‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ئاب‬‮, ‮‫ئ‬‮)‮

    September: ‫ئەیلوول‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ئەیلوول‬‮, ‮‫ئ‬‮)‮

    October: ‫تشرینی یەکەم‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫تشرینی یەکەم‬‮, ‮‫ت‬‮)‮

    November: ‫تشرینی دووەم‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫تشرینی دووەم‬‮, ‮‫ت‬‮)‮

    December: ‫کانونی یەکەم‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫کانونی یەکەم‬‮, ‮‫ک‬‮)‮

    Days

    Sunday: ‫یەکشەممە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫یەکشەممە‬‮, ‮‫ی‬‮)‮

    Monday: ‫دووشەممە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دووشەممە‬‮, ‮‫د‬‮)‮

    Tuesday: ‫سێشەممە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سێشەممە‬‮, ‮‫س‬‮)‮

    Wednesday: ‫چوارشەممە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫چوارشەممە‬‮, ‮‫چ‬‮)‮

    Thursday: ‫پێنجشەممە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫پێنجشەممە‬‮, ‮‫پ‬‮)‮

    Friday: ‫ھەینی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ھەینی‬‮, ‮‫ھ‬‮)‮

    Saturday: ‫شەممە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شەممە‬‮, ‮‫ش‬‮)‮

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫جنؤری‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ج‬‮)‮

    February: ‫فرؤری‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ف‬‮)‮

    March: ‫مارٕچ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫م‬‮)‮

    April: ‫اپریل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ا‬‮)‮

    May: ‫میٔ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫م‬‮)‮

    June: ‫جوٗن‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ج‬‮)‮

    July: ‫جوٗلایی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ج‬‮)‮

    August: ‫اگست‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ا‬‮)‮

    September: ‫ستمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫س‬‮)‮

    October: ‫اکتوٗبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫س‬‮)‮

    November: ‫نومبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ا‬‮)‮

    December: ‫دسمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ن‬‮)‮

    Days

    Sunday: ‫اَتھوار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آتھوار‬‮, ‮‫ا‬‮)‮

    Monday: ‫ژٔنٛدرٕروار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ژٔنٛدٕروار‬‮, ‮‫ژ‬‮)‮

    Tuesday: ‫بوٚموار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫بوٚموار‬‮, ‮‫ب‬‮)‮

    Wednesday: ‫بودوار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫بودوار‬‮, ‮‫ب‬‮)‮

    Thursday: ‫برٛٮ۪سوار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫برٛٮ۪سوار‬‮, ‮‫ب‬‮)‮

    Friday: ‫جُمہ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جُمہ‬‮, ‮‫ج‬‮)‮

    Saturday: ‫بٹوار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫بٹوار‬‮, ‮‫ب‬‮)‮

    Indian Calendar

    Months

    1: ‫محرم‬

    2: ‫صفر‬

    3: ‫ربیٖع الاول‬

    4: ‫ربیٖع الثانی‬

    5: ‫جمادی الاول‬

    6: ‫جمادی الثانی‬

    7: ‫رجب‬

    8: ‫شعبان‬

    9: ‫رمضان‬

    10: ‫شوال‬

    11: ‫ذِی القد‬

    12: ‫ذِی الحج‬

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫ژانویه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ژانویه‬‮)‮

    February: ‫فوریه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫فوریه‬‮)‮

    March: ‫مارس‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مارس‬‮)‮

    April: ‫آوریل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آوریل‬‮)‮

    May: ‫مه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مه‬‮)‮

    June: ‫ژوئن‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ژوئن‬‮)‮

    July: ‫ژوئیه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ژوئیه‬‮)‮

    August: ‫اوت‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اوت‬‮)‮

    September: ‫سپتامبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سپتامبر‬‮)‮

    October: ‫اکتبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اکتبر‬‮)‮

    November: ‫نوامبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نوامبر‬‮)‮

    December: ‫دسامبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دسامبر‬‮)‮

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫جانڤیە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جانڤیە‬‮, ‮‫1‬‮)‮

    February: ‫فئڤریە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫فئڤریە‬‮, ‮‫2‬‮)‮

    March: ‫مارس‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مارس‬‮, ‮‫3‬‮)‮

    April: ‫آڤریل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آڤریل‬‮, ‮‫4‬‮)‮

    May: ‫مئی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مئی‬‮, ‮‫5‬‮)‮

    June: ‫جوٙأن‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جوٙأن‬‮, ‮‫6‬‮)‮

    July: ‫جوٙلا‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جوٙلا‬‮, ‮‫7‬‮)‮

    August: ‫آگوست‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آگوست‬‮, ‮‫8‬‮)‮

    September: ‫سئپتامر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سئپتامر‬‮, ‮‫9‬‮)‮

    October: ‫ئوکتوڤر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ئوکتوڤر‬‮, ‮‫10‬‮)‮

    November: ‫نوڤامر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نوڤامر‬‮, ‮‫11‬‮)‮

    December: ‫دئسامر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دئسامر‬‮, ‮‫12‬‮)‮

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫جنوری‬

    February: ‫فروری‬

    March: ‫مارچ‬

    April: ‫اپریل‬

    May: ‫مئ‬

    June: ‫جون‬

    July: ‫جولائی‬

    August: ‫اگست‬

    September: ‫ستمبر‬

    October: ‫اکتوبر‬

    November: ‫نومبر‬

    December: ‫دسمبر‬

    Days

    Sunday: ‫اتوار‬

    Monday: ‫پیر‬

    Tuesday: ‫منگل‬

    Wednesday: ‫بُدھ‬

    Thursday: ‫جمعرات‬

    Friday: ‫جمعہ‬

    Saturday: ‫ہفتہ‬

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫ژانویه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ژانویه‬‮, ‮‫ژ‬‮)‮

    February: ‫فوریه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫فوریه‬‮, ‮‫ف‬‮)‮

    March: ‫مارس‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مارس‬‮, ‮‫م‬‮)‮

    April: ‫آوریل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آوریل‬‮, ‮‫آ‬‮)‮

    May: ‫مه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مه‬‮, ‮‫م‬‮)‮

    June: ‫ژوئن‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ژوئن‬‮, ‮‫ژ‬‮)‮

    July: ‫ژوئیه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ژوئیه‬‮, ‮‫ژ‬‮)‮

    August: ‫اوت‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اوت‬‮, ‮‫ا‬‮)‮

    September: ‫سپتامبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سپتامبر‬‮, ‮‫س‬‮)‮

    October: ‫اکتبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اکتبر‬‮, ‮‫ا‬‮)‮

    November: ‫نوامبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نوامبر‬‮, ‮‫ن‬‮)‮

    December: ‫دسامبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دسامبر‬‮, ‮‫د‬‮)‮

    Days

    Sunday: ‫یکشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫یکشنبه‬‮, ‮‫ی‬‮)‮

    Monday: ‫دوشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دوشنبه‬‮, ‮‫د‬‮)‮

    Tuesday: ‫سه‌شنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سه‌شنبه‬‮, ‮‫س‬‮)‮

    Wednesday: ‫چهارشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫چهارشنبه‬‮, ‮‫چ‬‮)‮

    Thursday: ‫پنجشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫پنجشنبه‬‮, ‮‫پ‬‮)‮

    Friday: ‫جمعه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جمعه‬‮, ‮‫ج‬‮)‮

    Saturday: ‫شنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شنبه‬‮, ‮‫ش‬‮)‮

    Hebrew Calendar

    Months

    Tishri: ‫تشری‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫تشری‬‮, ‮‫ت‬‮)‮

    Marcheshvan: ‫حشوان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫حشوان‬‮, ‮‫ح‬‮)‮

    Kislew: ‫کسلو‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫کسلو‬‮, ‮‫ک‬‮)‮

    Tebeth: ‫طوت‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫طوت‬‮, ‮‫ط‬‮)‮

    Shevat: ‫شباط‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شباط‬‮, ‮‫ش‬‮)‮

    Adar I: ‫آذار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آذار‬‮, ‮‫آ‬‮)‮

    Adar II: ‫واذار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫واذار‬‮, ‮‫و‬‮)‮

    Nisan: ‫نیسان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نیسان‬‮, ‮‫ن‬‮)‮

    Iyyar: ‫ایار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ایار‬‮, ‮‫ا‬‮)‮

    Siwan: ‫سیوان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سیوان‬‮, ‮‫س‬‮)‮

    Tammuz: ‫تموز‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫تموز‬‮, ‮‫ت‬‮)‮

    Av: ‫آب‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آب‬‮, ‮‫آ‬‮)‮

    Elul: ‫ایلول‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ایلول‬‮, ‮‫ا‬‮)‮

    Islamic Calendar

    Months

    al-Muharram: ‫محرم‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫محرم‬‮, ‮‫1‬‮)‮

    Safar: ‫صفر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫صفر‬‮, ‮‫2‬‮)‮

    Rabi al-Awwal: ‫ربیع الاول‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ربیع الاول‬‮, ‮‫3‬‮)‮

    Rabi al-Thani: ‫ربیع الثانی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ربیع الثانی‬‮, ‮‫4‬‮)‮

    Jumada al-Ula: ‫جمادی الاول‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جمادی الاول‬‮, ‮‫5‬‮)‮

    Jumada al-Thaniya: ‫جمادی الثانی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جمادی الثانی‬‮, ‮‫6‬‮)‮

    Rajab: ‫رجب‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫رجب‬‮, ‮‫7‬‮)‮

    Shaʿban: ‫شعبان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شعبان‬‮, ‮‫8‬‮)‮

    Ramadan: ‫رمضان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫رمضان‬‮, ‮‫9‬‮)‮

    Shawwal: ‫شوال‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شوال‬‮, ‮‫10‬‮)‮

    Dhu al-Qaʿda: ‫ذیقعده‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ذیقعده‬‮, ‮‫11‬‮)‮

    Dhu al-Hijja: ‫ذیحجه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ذیحجه‬‮, ‮‫12‬‮)‮

    Persian Calendar

    Months

    Farvardīn: ‫فروردین‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫فروردین‬‮, ‮‫ف‬‮)‮

    Ordībehešt: ‫اردیبهشت‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اردیبهشت‬‮, ‮‫ا‬‮)‮

    Xordād: ‫خرداد‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫خرداد‬‮, ‮‫خ‬‮)‮

    Tīr: ‫تیر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫تیر‬‮, ‮‫ت‬‮)‮

    Mordād: ‫مرداد‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مرداد‬‮, ‮‫م‬‮)‮

    Šahrīvar: ‫شهریور‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شهریور‬‮, ‮‫ش‬‮)‮

    Mehr: ‫مهر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مهر‬‮, ‮‫م‬‮)‮

    Ābān: ‫آبان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آبان‬‮, ‮‫آ‬‮)‮

    Āzar: ‫آذر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫آذر‬‮, ‮‫آ‬‮)‮

    Dey: ‫دی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دی‬‮, ‮‫د‬‮)‮

    Bahman: ‫بهمن‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫بهمن‬‮, ‮‫ب‬‮)‮

    Esfand: ‫اسفند‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اسفند‬‮, ‮‫ا‬‮)‮

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫جنوري‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جنوري‬‮, ‮‫1‬‮)‮

    February: ‫فبروري‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫فبروري‬‮, ‮‫2‬‮)‮

    March: ‫مارچ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مارچ‬‮, ‮‫3‬‮)‮

    April: ‫اپریل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اپریل‬‮, ‮‫4‬‮)‮

    May: ‫مۍ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مۍ‬‮, ‮‫5‬‮)‮

    June: ‫جون‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جون‬‮, ‮‫6‬‮)‮

    July: ‫جولای‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جولای‬‮, ‮‫7‬‮)‮

    August: ‫اګست‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اګست‬‮, ‮‫8‬‮)‮

    September: ‫سپتمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سپتمبر‬‮, ‮‫9‬‮)‮

    October: ‫اکتوبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اکتوبر‬‮, ‮‫10‬‮)‮

    November: ‫نومبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نومبر‬‮, ‮‫11‬‮)‮

    December: ‫دسمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دسمبر‬‮, ‮‫12‬‮)‮

    Days

    Sunday: ‫یکشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫یکشنبه‬‮)‮

    Monday: ‫دوشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دوشنبه‬‮)‮

    Tuesday: ‫سه‌شنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سه‌شنبه‬‮)‮

    Wednesday: ‫چهارشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫چهارشنبه‬‮)‮

    Thursday: ‫پنجشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫پنجشنبه‬‮)‮

    Friday: ‫جمعه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جمعه‬‮)‮

    Saturday: ‫شنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شنبه‬‮)‮

    Persian Calendar

    Months

    Farvardīn: ‫وری‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫وری‬‮)‮

    Ordībehešt: ‫غویی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫غویی‬‮)‮

    Xordād: ‫غبرگولی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫غبرگولی‬‮)‮

    Tīr: ‫چنگاښ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫چنگاښ‬‮)‮

    Mordād: ‫زمری‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫زمری‬‮)‮

    Šahrīvar: ‫وږی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫وږی‬‮)‮

    Mehr: ‫تله‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫تله‬‮)‮

    Ābān: ‫لړم‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫لړم‬‮)‮

    Āzar: ‫لیندۍ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫لیندۍ‬‮)‮

    Dey: ‫مرغومی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مرغومی‬‮)‮

    Bahman: ‫سلواغه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سلواغه‬‮)‮

    Esfand: ‫کب‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫کب‬‮)‮

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Traditional Chinese Calendar

    Months

    1: ‫Month1‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo1‬‮)‮

    2: ‫Month2‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo2‬‮)‮

    3: ‫Month3‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo3‬‮)‮

    4: ‫Month4‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo4‬‮)‮

    5: ‫Month5‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo5‬‮)‮

    6: ‫Month6‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo6‬‮)‮

    7: ‫Month7‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo7‬‮)‮

    8: ‫Month8‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo8‬‮)‮

    9: ‫Month9‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo9‬‮)‮

    10: ‫Month10‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo10‬‮)‮

    11: ‫Month11‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo11‬‮)‮

    12: ‫Month12‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫Mo12‬‮)‮

    Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫يانۋار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫يانۋار‬‮)‮

    February: ‫فېۋرال‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫فېۋرال‬‮)‮

    March: ‫مارت‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مارت‬‮)‮

    April: ‫ئاپرېل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ئاپرېل‬‮)‮

    May: ‫ماي‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ماي‬‮)‮

    June: ‫ئىيۇن‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ئىيۇن‬‮)‮

    July: ‫ئىيۇل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ئىيۇل‬‮)‮

    August: ‫ئاۋغۇست‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ئاۋغۇست‬‮)‮

    September: ‫سېنتەبىر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سېنتەبىر‬‮)‮

    October: ‫ئۆكتەبىر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ئۆكتەبىر‬‮)‮

    November: ‫نويابىر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نويابىر‬‮)‮

    December: ‫دېكابىر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دېكابىر‬‮)‮

    Days

    Sunday: ‫يەكشەنبە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫يە‬‮, ‮‫ي‬‮)‮

    Monday: ‫دۈشەنبە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دۈ‬‮, ‮‫د‬‮)‮

    Tuesday: ‫سەيشەنبە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سە‬‮, ‮‫س‬‮)‮

    Wednesday: ‫چارشەنبە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫چا‬‮, ‮‫چ‬‮)‮

    Thursday: ‫پەيشەنبە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫پە‬‮, ‮‫پ‬‮)‮

    Friday: ‫جۈمە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جۈ‬‮, ‮‫ج‬‮)‮

    Saturday: ‫شەنبە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شە‬‮, ‮‫ش‬‮)‮

    Islamic Calendar

    Months

    al-Muharram: ‫مۇھەررەم‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مۇھەررەم‬‮)‮

    Safar: ‫سەپەر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سەپەر‬‮)‮

    Rabi al-Awwal: ‫رەبىئۇلئەۋۋەل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫رەبىئۇلئەۋۋەل‬‮)‮

    Rabi al-Thani: ‫رەبىئۇلئاخىر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫رەبىئۇلئاخىر‬‮)‮

    Jumada al-Ula: ‫جەمادىيەلئەۋۋەل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جەمادىيەلئەۋۋەل‬‮)‮

    Jumada al-Thaniya: ‫جەمادىيەلئاخىر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جەمادىيەلئاخىر‬‮)‮

    Rajab: ‫رەجەب‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫رەجەب‬‮)‮

    Shaʿban: ‫شەئبان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شەئبان‬‮)‮

    Ramadan: ‫رامىزان‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫رامىزان‬‮)‮

    Shawwal: ‫شەۋۋال‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫شەۋۋال‬‮)‮

    Dhu al-Qaʿda: ‫زۇلقەئدە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫زۇلقەئدە‬‮)‮

    Dhu al-Hijja: ‫زۇلھەججە‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫زۇلھەججە‬‮)‮

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫جنوری‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جنوری‬‮, ‮‫J‬‮)‮

    February: ‫فروری‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫فروری‬‮, ‮‫F‬‮)‮

    March: ‫مارچ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مارچ‬‮, ‮‫M‬‮)‮

    April: ‫اپریل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اپریل‬‮, ‮‫A‬‮)‮

    May: ‫مئی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مئی‬‮, ‮‫M‬‮)‮

    June: ‫جون‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جون‬‮, ‮‫J‬‮)‮

    July: ‫جولائی‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جولائی‬‮, ‮‫J‬‮)‮

    August: ‫اگست‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اگست‬‮, ‮‫A‬‮)‮

    September: ‫ستمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ستمبر‬‮, ‮‫S‬‮)‮

    October: ‫اکتوبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اکتوبر‬‮, ‮‫O‬‮)‮

    November: ‫نومبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نومبر‬‮, ‮‫N‬‮)‮

    December: ‫دسمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دسمبر‬‮, ‮‫D‬‮)‮

    Days

    Sunday: ‫اتوار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اتوار‬‮, ‮‫S‬‮)‮

    Monday: ‫سوموار‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سوموار‬‮, ‮‫M‬‮)‮

    Tuesday: ‫منگل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫منگل‬‮, ‮‫T‬‮)‮

    Wednesday: ‫بدھ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫بدھ‬‮, ‮‫W‬‮)‮

    Thursday: ‫جمعرات‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جمعرات‬‮, ‮‫T‬‮)‮

    Friday: ‫جمعہ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جمعہ‬‮, ‮‫F‬‮)‮

    Saturday: ‫ہفتہ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ہفتہ‬‮, ‮‫S‬‮)‮

    Islamic Calendar

    Months

    al-Muharram: ‫محرم‬

    Safar: ‫صفر‬

    Rabi al-Awwal: ‫ر بیع الاول‬

    Rabi al-Thani: ‫ر بیع الثانی‬

    Jumada al-Ula: ‫جمادی الاول‬

    Jumada al-Thaniya: ‫جمادی الثانی‬

    Rajab: ‫رجب‬

    Shaʿban: ‫شعبان‬

    Ramadan: ‫رمضان‬

    Shawwal: ‫شوال‬

    Dhu al-Qaʿda: ‫ذوالقعدۃ‬

    Dhu al-Hijja: ‫ذوالحجۃ‬

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫جنوری‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جنو‬‮)‮

    February: ‫فبروری‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫فبر‬‮)‮

    March: ‫مارچ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫مار‬‮)‮

    April: ‫اپریل‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اپر‬‮)‮

    May: ‫می‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫می‬‮)‮

    June: ‫جون‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جون‬‮)‮

    July: ‫جولای‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫جول‬‮)‮

    August: ‫اگست‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اگس‬‮)‮

    September: ‫سپتمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫سپت‬‮)‮

    October: ‫اکتوبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫اکت‬‮)‮

    November: ‫نومبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫نوم‬‮)‮

    December: ‫دسمبر‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫دسم‬‮)‮

    Days

    Sunday: ‫یکشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ی.‬‮)‮

    Monday: ‫دوشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫د.‬‮)‮

    Tuesday: ‫سه‌شنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫س.‬‮)‮

    Wednesday: ‫چهارشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫چ.‬‮)‮

    Thursday: ‫پنجشنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫پ.‬‮)‮

    Friday: ‫جمعه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ج.‬‮)‮

    Saturday: ‫شنبه‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ش.‬‮)‮

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff

1
  • Posted by Lorna Evans on 2014-09-11 03:51:24

    Do computers and technology change the use of scripts? Or perhaps, the question should be “how do computers and technology change the use of scripts?”

    A number of years ago I wrote a chapter in the  Implementing Writing Systems book which is now online. The chapter was called  Challenges in publishing with non-Roman scripts. In that chapter I discussed how computers had changed the way word spacing is handled in the Ethiopic script. To quote:

    Ethiopic is an example of using a character rather than a space: the Hulet Neteb () is used between words in place of white space, unless there is other punctuation which acts as a word break. (This is also an excellent illustration of how computers have changed a script. With the advent of computing, Ethiopic is now usually written on computer with white space between words. When handwriting, however, people typically still use the Hulet Neteb.)

    There can be even more dramatic changes when you look at other scripts or styles of script. ali eteraz has written a very interesting article called  The Death of the Urdu Script. The Urdu language uses a special style of the Arabic script called nastaliq. Nastaliq is written on a slanting baseline where the longer a word is, the taller the word becomes. Here is an example of nastaliq compared with the more common naskh:

    Nastaliq v. Naskh. Courtesy Wikpedia.

    It should be immediately obvious why naskh is easier to implement than nastaliq. ali eteraz says “With its straightness and angularity, naskh is simply easier to code, because unlike nastaliq, it doesn’t move vertically and doesn’t have dots adhering to a strict pattern.”

    The difficulties in implementing nastaliq mean that most software companies have simply opted to implement naskh in hopes that Urdu speakers (and any other language using nastaliq) will switch to using naskh. This has not worked the way we might have anticipated. Apparently naskh is so abhorrent to Urdu speakers that they prefer to switch to using the Roman script instead of naskh on the web and for texting!

    ali eteraz goes on to explain in an entertaining way all the steps he went through to try to get various software companies to implement nastaliq on computers and mobile devices. He gives a plea for software developers to implement nastaliq fonts and keyboards for use on the web and for mobile devices.

    This beautiful script deserves to be preserved.

    Associations
    TopicsScriptSource Blog
    ScriptsArabic [Arab]
    LanguagesUrdu [urd]

0

Copyright © 2017 SIL International and released under the  Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license (CC-BY-SA) unless noted otherwise. Language data includes information from the  Ethnologue. Script information partially from the  ISO 15924 Registration Authority. Some character data from  The Unicode Standard Character Database and locale data from the  Common Locale Data Repository. Used by permission.