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HebrewHebr

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6

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Title
Hebrew Kinot for Tisha B'Av
Judeo-Arabic Writing (Hebraicized)
Names of Months and Days in Hebrew
Names of Months and Days in Yiddish
Writing Ladino in the Hebrew Script
Yiddish Orthography

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24
Writing systems that use this script (24)
Name Code Is used to write language
Ancient Hebrew written with Hebrew script hbo-Hebr Hebrew, Ancient [hbo]
Bukharic written with Hebrew script bhh-Hebr Bukharic [bhh]
Eastern Yiddish written with Hebrew script ydd-Hebr Yiddish, Eastern [ydd]
Hebrew written with Hebrew script he Hebrew [heb]
Hulaulá written with Hebrew script huy-Hebr Hulaulá [huy]
Judeo-Arabic written with Hebrew script jrb-Hebr Judeo-Arabic [jrb]
Judeo-Berber written with Hebrew script jbe-Hebr Judeo-Berber [jbe]
Judeo-Iraqi Arabic written with Hebrew script yhd-Hebr Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi [yhd]
Judeo-Italian written with Hebrew script itk-Hebr Judeo-Italian [itk]
Judeo-Moroccan Arabic written with Hebrew script aju-Hebr Arabic, Judeo-Moroccan [aju]
Judeo-Persian written with Hebrew script jpr-Hebr Judeo-Persian [jpr]
Judeo-Tat written with Hebrew script jdt-Hebr Judeo-Tat [jdt]
Judeo-Tripolitanian Arabic written with Hebrew script yud-Hebr Arabic, Judeo-Tripolitanian [yud]
Judeo-Tunisian Arabic written with Hebrew script ajt-Hebr Arabic, Judeo-Tunisian [ajt]
Judeo-Yemeni Arabic written with Hebrew script jye-Hebr Arabic, Judeo-Yemeni [jye]
Ladino written with Hebrew script lad-Hebr Ladino [lad]
Lishán Didán written with Hebrew script trg-Hebr Lishán Didán [trg]
Lishana Deni written with Hebrew script lsd-Hebr Lishana Deni [lsd]
Lishanid Noshan written with Hebrew script aij-Hebr Lishanid Noshan [aij]
Samaritan Aramaic written with Hebrew script sam-Hebr Aramaic, Samaritan [sam]
Samaritan written with Hebrew script smp-Hebr Samaritan [smp]
Tajik written with Hebrew script tg-Hebr Tajik [tgk]
Western Yiddish written with Hebrew script yih-Hebr Yiddish, Western [yih]
Yiddish written with Hebrew script yi Yiddish [yid]

6
  • The Kinot are a liturgical set of poems or dirges expressing mourning, pain, and suffering. This text is to be read on the occasion of Tisha B'Av, a day of fasting in the Jewish calendar to commemorate the destruction of the temples in Jerusalem.

    Source

     Flickr Original photo by Chajm Guski

    Copyright© 2009 Chajm Guski
    LicenseCreative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Allows modification and redistribution
    ContributorSteph Holloway
  • The Judeo-Arabic languages are a group of languages spoken by Jews of ethnic Arabic origin. These are often considered dialects of Arabic, though they contain borrowings from Hebrew and Aramaic. There are three script usages for writing the Judeo-Arabic languages; phonetic, Hebraicized, and Arabicized. All three use Hebrew letters or modifications of Hebrew letters.

    Phonetic orthography was only used for writing early Judeo-Arabic texts, alongside Arabicized orthography, which suddenly replaced it in the 10th century. Arabicized orthography uses Hebrew-based letters but applies Classical Arabic spelling conventions to the writing. Long vowels and short consonants are written with full letters; short vowels and long consonants are written with diacritics. Arabic diacritic dots are also used to modify some consonant letters to enable Judeo-Arabic sounds not present in spoken Hebrew to be represented.

    Hebraicized orthography is in some ways a combination of the previous two styles. Since the 15th century it has been used alongside Arabicized orthography, from which some influence is apparent. However, it displays much greater influence from Hebrew and Aramaic spelling, and uses diacritics to represent short vowels, resulting in a more phonetic representation than was possible with Arabic spelling conventions.

    Source

    Benjamin Hary "Adaptations of the Hebrew Script" pp727-734 The World's Writing Systems

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫ינואר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ינו׳‬‮, ‮‫1‬‮)‮

    February: ‫פברואר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫פבר׳‬‮, ‮‫2‬‮)‮

    March: ‫מרץ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫מרץ‬‮, ‮‫3‬‮)‮

    April: ‫אפריל‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אפר׳‬‮, ‮‫4‬‮)‮

    May: ‫מאי‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫מאי‬‮, ‮‫5‬‮)‮

    June: ‫יוני‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יוני‬‮, ‮‫6‬‮)‮

    July: ‫יולי‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יולי‬‮, ‮‫7‬‮)‮

    August: ‫אוגוסט‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אוג׳‬‮, ‮‫8‬‮)‮

    September: ‫ספטמבר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ספט׳‬‮, ‮‫9‬‮)‮

    October: ‫אוקטובר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אוק׳‬‮, ‮‫10‬‮)‮

    November: ‫נובמבר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫נוב׳‬‮, ‮‫11‬‮)‮

    December: ‫דצמבר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫דצמ׳‬‮, ‮‫12‬‮)‮

    Days

    Sunday: ‫יום ראשון‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יום א׳‬‮, ‮‫א׳‬‮)‮

    Monday: ‫יום שני‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יום ב׳‬‮, ‮‫ב׳‬‮)‮

    Tuesday: ‫יום שלישי‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יום ג׳‬‮, ‮‫ג׳‬‮)‮

    Wednesday: ‫יום רביעי‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יום ד׳‬‮, ‮‫ד׳‬‮)‮

    Thursday: ‫יום חמישי‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יום ה׳‬‮, ‮‫ה׳‬‮)‮

    Friday: ‫יום שישי‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יום ו׳‬‮, ‮‫ו׳‬‮)‮

    Saturday: ‫יום שבת‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫שבת‬‮, ‮‫ש׳‬‮)‮

    Hebrew Calendar

    Months

    Tishri: ‫תשרי‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫תשרי‬‮, ‮‫תש׳‬‮)‮

    Marcheshvan: ‫חשוון‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫חשון‬‮, ‮‫חש׳‬‮)‮

    Kislew: ‫כסלו‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫כסלו‬‮, ‮‫כס׳‬‮)‮

    Tebeth: ‫טבת‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫טבת‬‮, ‮‫טב׳‬‮)‮

    Shevat: ‫שבט‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫שבט‬‮, ‮‫שב׳‬‮)‮

    Adar I: ‫אדר א׳‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אדר א׳‬‮, ‮‫א״א‬‮)‮

    Adar II: ‫אדר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אדר‬‮, ‮‫אד׳‬‮)‮

    Nisan: ‫ניסן‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ניסן‬‮, ‮‫ני׳‬‮)‮

    Iyyar: ‫אייר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אייר‬‮, ‮‫אי׳‬‮)‮

    Siwan: ‫סיוון‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫סיון‬‮, ‮‫סי׳‬‮)‮

    Tammuz: ‫תמוז‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫תמוז‬‮, ‮‫תמ׳‬‮)‮

    Av: ‫אב‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אב‬‮, ‮‫אב‬‮)‮

    Elul: ‫אלול‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אלול‬‮, ‮‫אל׳‬‮)‮

    Islamic Calendar

    Months

    al-Muharram: ‫מוחרם‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫מוחרם‬‮, ‮‫1‬‮)‮

    Safar: ‫צפר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫צפר‬‮, ‮‫2‬‮)‮

    Rabi al-Awwal: ‫רביע אל־אוול‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫רביע א׳‬‮, ‮‫3‬‮)‮

    Rabi al-Thani: ‫רביע א־ת׳אני‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫רביע ב׳‬‮, ‮‫4‬‮)‮

    Jumada al-Ula: ‫ג׳ומאדא אל־אולא‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ג׳ומאדא א׳‬‮, ‮‫5‬‮)‮

    Jumada al-Thaniya: ‫ג׳ומאדא א־ת׳אניה‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ג׳ומאדא ב׳‬‮, ‮‫6‬‮)‮

    Rajab: ‫רג׳ב‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫רג׳ב‬‮, ‮‫7‬‮)‮

    Shaʿban: ‫שעבאן‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫שעבאן‬‮, ‮‫8‬‮)‮

    Ramadan: ‫רמדאן‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫רמדאן‬‮, ‮‫9‬‮)‮

    Shawwal: ‫שוואל‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫שוואל‬‮, ‮‫10‬‮)‮

    Dhu al-Qaʿda: ‫ד׳ו אל־קעדה‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ד׳ו אל־קעדה‬‮, ‮‫11‬‮)‮

    Dhu al-Hijja: ‫ד׳ו אל־חיג׳ה‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ד׳ו אל־חיג׳ה‬‮, ‮‫12‬‮)‮

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Gregorian Calendar

    Months

    January: ‫יאַנואַר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יאַנ‬‮)‮

    February: ‫פֿעברואַר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫פֿעב‬‮)‮

    March: ‫מערץ‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫מערץ‬‮)‮

    April: ‫אַפּריל‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אַפּר‬‮)‮

    May: ‫מיי‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫מיי‬‮)‮

    June: ‫יוני‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יוני‬‮)‮

    July: ‫יולי‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫יולי‬‮)‮

    August: ‫אויגוסט‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אויג‬‮)‮

    September: ‫סעפּטעמבער‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫סעפּ‬‮)‮

    October: ‫אקטאבער‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אקט‬‮)‮

    November: ‫נאוועמבער‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫נאוו‬‮)‮

    December: ‫דעצעמבער‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫דעצ‬‮)‮

    Days

    Sunday: ‫זונטיק‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫זונטיק‬‮)‮

    Monday: ‫מאָנטיק‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫מאָנטיק‬‮)‮

    Tuesday: ‫דינסטיק‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫דינסטיק‬‮)‮

    Wednesday: ‫מיטוואך‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫מיטוואך‬‮)‮

    Thursday: ‫דאנערשטיק‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫דאנערשטיק‬‮)‮

    Friday: ‫פֿרײַטיק‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫פֿרײַטיק‬‮)‮

    Saturday: ‫שבת‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫שבת‬‮)‮

    Hebrew Calendar

    Months

    Tishri: ‫תשרי‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫תשרי‬‮, ‮‫תש‬‮)‮

    Marcheshvan: ‫חשון‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫חשון‬‮, ‮‫חש‬‮)‮

    Kislew: ‫כסלו‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫כסלו‬‮, ‮‫כס‬‮)‮

    Tebeth: ‫טבת‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫טבת‬‮, ‮‫טב‬‮)‮

    Shevat: ‫שבט‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫שבט‬‮, ‮‫שב‬‮)‮

    Adar I: ‫אדר א׳‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אדר א׳‬‮, ‮‫אא‬‮)‮

    Adar II: ‫אדר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אדר‬‮, ‮‫א2‬‮)‮

    Nisan: ‫ניסן‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫ניסן‬‮, ‮‫ני‬‮)‮

    Iyyar: ‫אייר‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אייר‬‮, ‮‫אי‬‮)‮

    Siwan: ‫סיון‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫סיון‬‮, ‮‫סי‬‮)‮

    Tammuz: ‫תמוז‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫תמוז‬‮, ‮‫תמ‬‮)‮

    Av: ‫אב‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אב‬‮, ‮‫אב‬‮)‮

    Elul: ‫אלול‬‮ ‮‮(‮‫אלול‬‮, ‮‫אל‬‮)‮

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at  www.unicode.org/copyright.html.

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Ladino, otherwise called Judeo-Spanish, is the language spoken and written by Jews of Spanish origin, called Sephardic Jews. Estimates vary as to how widely spoken this language is; most scholars quote figures between 160,000 and 300,000. In printed publications, Ladino was almost always written in the Rashi style of the Hebrew script, or in an adapted Hebrew script called Solitreo. In the later years leading to WWII, it was also sometimes written in the modern block style of Hebrew. Since the late 20th century, Ladino has generally been written in the Latin alphabet, using a phonetic transcription system.

    The letters used for the Solitreo script are all taken from the Hebrew script; no extra letters have been added, despite the Ladino language containing a number of non-Semitic sounds. However, whereas in Hebrew multiple letters may be used for writing the same sound - vet ב and vav ו both represent [v], kaph כ and qoph ק both represent [k], etc. - in Solitreo, one Ladino sound is generally represented consistently by one letter; vet is used but not vav, qoph but not kaph, samech but not sin, and so on. Those letters which are not used for writing Ladino sounds tend only to be used when writing words of Semitic origin (or occasionally, words of other origins).  This chart gives a clear overview comparison of the letters used for various sounds in Hebrew and Solitreo writing.

    Unlike traditional Hebrew writing, when writing in Solitreo all vowels are represented. The Hebrew niqqud system of marking vowels using diacritics is not used; rather, the letters vav ו, yud י, and aleph א are used for representing u/o, i/e, and a, respectively. The three vowel letters are combined for writing diphthongs. Words which start with a vowel are written with a silent aleph prefix.

    The rafe diacritic, obsolete in modern written Hebrew, is used in Solitreo writing to produce non-Semitic sounds. Gimel ג, which represents [g], when written with a rafe diacritic represents [dʒ] or [tʃ].

    Source

    Personal correspondence with Brian Berman, author of  http://www.solitreo.com/ladinotype/index.php

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • Yiddish is a Germanic language derived from High German with influence from Hebrew, Aramaic, Slavic languages, and Romance languages. It is widely spoken by Jews of European origin throughout Europe, North America, Brazil and Argentina. The language is written in the Hebrew script, but there is significant variation in orthographic styles, largely because the language itself has no official status so there is no authoritative governing body to regulate the orthography. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries Yiddish spelling generally followed German orthography as closely as possible. In 1936, the Yiddish Scientific Institute (YIVO) and Central Yiddish School Organisation published the 'Rules of Yiddish orthography' which has provided the most widely accepted standard in the absence of any government-approved publication.

    In most Yiddish texts, words of Hebrew and Aramaic origin are generally written as they are in their original language. Exceptions to this have included publications by Soviet Yiddish authors, for whom the Semitic spelling may have had undesirable political or religious connotations. As a result, letters which occur only in words of Semitic origin are not found in Soviet Yiddish orthographies. Yiddish words may combine Semitic and non-Semitic roots and affixes; some spelling styles separate these with an apostrophe.

    Dialect differences in spoken Yiddish are mostly found in their vocalic systems. The YIVO orthography fully represents vowels, but cannot accurately reflect all of the dialectal variation which is present in speech. Only three vowel letters can occur at the start of a word, representing [a], [o], and [e]. To write a word which starts with one of the other vowels, for example ['ɛjbɪk] 'eternal', a silent alef character is written as a prefix. Generally, when a word of this sort is itself prefixed by another morpheme, for example [fɑr'ɛjbɪkŋ] 'immortalize', the silent alef is still written before the 'offending' vowel, even though it is now in the middle of the word.

    Stress is distinctive in Yiddish - that is, two words comprised of the same phones may have different meanings depending on their stress patterns - but it is not represented in the writing.

    Yiddish writing uses four ligatures which are not needed for writing Hebrew.

    Source

    Howard I Aronson "Yiddish" pp735-741 The World's Writing Systems

    ContributorScriptSource Staff

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Copyright © 2017 SIL International and released under the  Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license (CC-BY-SA) unless noted otherwise. Language data includes information from the  Ethnologue. Script information partially from the  ISO 15924 Registration Authority. Some character data from  The Unicode Standard Character Database and locale data from the  Common Locale Data Repository. Used by permission.