Japanese (alias for Han + Hiragana + Katakana)Jpan

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Maintenance Notice in Japanese
Names of Months and Days in Japanese
The Development of Man'yōgana for Japanese Writing


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Writing systems that use this script (1)

  • This is a notice written in the Japanese language and script informing residents of an apartment building that their fire extinguishers are going to be checked by a maintenance worker.


    Personal correspondence with Jacqueline Kaga

    CopyrightNot indicated
    LicenseCreative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Allows modification and redistribution
    ContributorSteph Holloway
  • Traditional Chinese Calendar


    1: 正月 (正月, 正)

    2: 二月 (二月, 二)

    3: 三月 (三月, 三)

    4: 四月 (四月, 四)

    5: 五月 (五月, 五)

    6: 六月 (六月, 六)

    7: 七月 (七月, 七)

    8: 八月 (八月, 八)

    9: 九月 (九月, 九)

    10: 十月 (十月, 十)

    11: 十一月 (十一月, 十一)

    12: 十二月 (十二月, 十二)

    Coptic Calendar


    Tut: トウト (トウト, 1)

    Babah: ババ (ババ, 2)

    Hatur: ハトール (ハトール, 3)

    Kiyahk: キアック (キアック, 4)

    Tubah: トーバ (トーバ, 5)

    Amshir: アムシール (アムシール, 6)

    Baramhat: バラムハート (バラムハート, 7)

    Baramundah: バラモウダ (バラモウダ, 8)

    Bashans: バシャンス (バシャンス, 9)

    Ba'unah: パオーナ (パオーナ, 10)

    Abib: エペープ (エペープ, 11)

    Misra: メスラ (メスラ, 12)

    Nasi: ナシエ (ナシエ, 13)

    Ethiopic Calendar


    Mäskäräm: メスケレム (メスケレム, 1)

    Ṭəqəmt: テケムト (テケムト, 2)

    Ḫədar: ヘダル (ヘダル, 3)

    Taḫśaś: ターサス (ターサス, 4)

    Ṭərr: テル (テル, 5)

    Yäkatit: イェカティト (イェカティト, 6)

    Mägabit: メガビト (メガビト, 7)

    Miyazya: ミアジア (ミアジア, 8)

    Gənbot: ゲンボト (ゲンボト, 9)

    Säne: セネ (セネ, 10)

    Ḥamle: ハムレ (ハムレ, 11)

    Nähase: ネハッセ (ネハッセ, 12)

    Ṗagumen: パグメン (パグメン, 13)

    Gregorian Calendar


    January: 1月 (1月, 1)

    February: 2月 (2月, 2)

    March: 3月 (3月, 3)

    April: 4月 (4月, 4)

    May: 5月 (5月, 5)

    June: 6月 (6月, 6)

    July: 7月 (7月, 7)

    August: 8月 (8月, 8)

    September: 9月 (9月, 9)

    October: 10月 (10月, 10)

    November: 11月 (11月, 11)

    December: 12月 (12月, 12)


    Sunday: 日曜日 (日, 日)

    Monday: 月曜日 (月, 月)

    Tuesday: 火曜日 (火, 火)

    Wednesday: 水曜日 (水, 水)

    Thursday: 木曜日 (木, 木)

    Friday: 金曜日 (金, 金)

    Saturday: 土曜日 (土, 土)

    Hebrew Calendar


    Tishri: ティスレ (ティスレ, 1)

    Marcheshvan: へシボン (へシボン, 2)

    Kislew: キスレブ (キスレブ, 3)

    Tebeth: テベット (テベット, 4)

    Shevat: シバット (シバット, 5)

    Adar I: アダル I (アダル I, 6)

    Adar II: アダル II (アダル II, 7)

    Nisan: ニサン (ニサン, 8)

    Iyyar: イヤル (イヤル, 9)

    Siwan: シバン (シバン, 10)

    Tammuz: タムズ (タムズ, 11)

    Av: アヴ (アヴ, 12)

    Elul: エルル (エルル, 13)

    Indian Calendar


    1: カイトラ (カイトラ, 1)

    2: ヴァイサカ (ヴァイサカ, 2)

    3: ジャイスタ (ジャイスタ, 3)

    4: アーサダ (アーサダ, 4)

    5: スラバナ (スラバナ, 5)

    6: バードラ (バードラ, 6)

    7: アスビナ (アスビナ, 7)

    8: カルディカ (カルディカ, 8)

    9: アヴラハヤナ (アヴラハヤナ, 9)

    10: パウサ (パウサ, 10)

    11: マーガ (マーガ, 11)

    12: パルグナ (パルグナ, 12)

    Islamic Calendar


    al-Muharram: ムハッラム (ムハッラム, 1)

    Safar: サフアル (サフアル, 2)

    Rabi al-Awwal: ラビー・ウル・アウワル (ラビー・ウル・アウワル, 3)

    Rabi al-Thani: ラビー・ウッ・サーニー (ラビー・ウッ・サーニー, 4)

    Jumada al-Ula: ジュマーダル・アウワル (ジュマーダル・アウワル, 5)

    Jumada al-Thaniya: ジュマーダッサーニー (ジュマーダッサーニー, 6)

    Rajab: ラジャブ (ラジャブ, 7)

    Shaʿban: シャアバーン (シャアバーン, 8)

    Ramadan: ラマダーン (ラマダーン, 9)

    Shawwal: シャウワール (シャウワール, 10)

    Dhu al-Qaʿda: ズル・カイダ (ズル・カイダ, 11)

    Dhu al-Hijja: ズル・ヒッジャ (ズル・ヒッジャ, 12)

    Persian Calendar


    Farvardīn: ファルヴァルディーン (ファルヴァルディーン, 1)

    Ordībehešt: オルディーベヘシュト (オルディーベヘシュト, 2)

    Xordād: ホルダード (ホルダード, 3)

    Tīr: ティール (ティール, 4)

    Mordād: モルダード (モルダード, 5)

    Šahrīvar: シャハリーヴァル (シャハリーヴァル, 6)

    Mehr: メフル (メフル, 7)

    Ābān: アーバーン (アーバーン, 8)

    Āzar: アーザル (アーザル, 9)

    Dey: デイ (デイ, 10)

    Bahman: バフマン (バフマン, 11)

    Esfand: エスファンド (エスファンド, 12)

    For further information on calendar data, see  Unicode Technical Report #35.

    Source Common Locale Data Repository (CLDR)
    Copyright© 1991-2011 Unicode, Inc.
    LicenseRestricted content - see terms below

    All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use at

    ContributorScriptSource Staff
  • No full-fledged script for written Japanese existed until the development of man'yōgana (万葉仮名), which appropriated kanji for their phonetic value (derived from their Chinese readings) rather than their semantic value. Man'yōgana was initially used to record poetry, as in the Man'yōshū (万葉集), compiled sometime before 759, whence the writing system derives its name. The modern kana, namely hiragana and katakana, are simplifications and systemizations of man'yōgana.

    Due to the large number of words and concepts entering Japan from China which had no native equivalent, many words entered Japanese directly, with a pronunciation similar to the original Chinese. This Chinese-derived reading is known as on'yomi (音読み), and this vocabulary as a whole is referred to as Sino-Japanese in English and kango (漢語) in Japanese. At the same time, native Japanese already had words corresponding to many borrowed kanji. Authors increasingly used kanji to represent these words. This Japanese-derived reading is known as kun'yomi (訓読み). A kanji may have none, one, or several on'yomi and kun'yomi. Okurigana are written after the initial kanji for verbs and adjectives to give inflection and to help disambiguate a particular kanji's reading. The same character may be read several different ways depending on the word. For example, the character 行 is read i as the first syllable of iku (行く, "to go"), okona as the first three syllables of okonau (行う, "to carry out"), gyō in the compound word gyōretsu (行列, "line" or "procession"), kō in the word ginkō (銀行, "bank"), and an in the word andon (行灯, "lantern").

    Some linguists have compared the Japanese borrowing of Chinese-derived vocabulary as akin to the influx of Romance vocabulary into English during the Norman conquest of England. Like English, Japanese has many synonyms of differing origin, with words from both Chinese and native Japanese. Sino-Japanese is often considered more formal or literary, just as latinate words in English often mark a higher register.



Copyright © 2017 SIL International and released under the  Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 license (CC-BY-SA) unless noted otherwise. Language data includes information from the  Ethnologue. Script information partially from the  ISO 15924 Registration Authority. Some character data from  The Unicode Standard Character Database and locale data from the  Common Locale Data Repository. Used by permission.